GALLATIN, a large Township in the S. E. corner of Columbia County, 19 miles S. E. of Hudson, bounded N. by Granger, E. by the State of Massachusetts, and the Oblong, attched to the town of Northeast in Dutchess County; S. by Dutchess County, W. by Livingston. It is 13 miles long E. and W., and about 7 miles wide, and is one of the Townships of Livingston's Manor, which see. Ancram, or Roeliff Jansen's Creek, winds through from near the N. E. to the S. W. corner, having crossed for a short distance into Dutchess Co., and it supplies fine sites for mills and every description of water works. The soil is good for farming, in general, though of various qualities, and the surface considerably diversified. A large portion of the soil is a warm schistic gravel, timbered with oak, walnut, &c., and it is capable of being rendered an excellent farming country. The lands are held by leases, of various duration, but principally for a single life, and its agriculture indicates the tenure of title. There are 70 looms in families, which produced in 1810, 15,170 yards of cloth, with the aid of 1 fulling-mill and some carding machines. The Ancram Iron works in this town are very extensive, and the iron has a high celebrity. About 20,000 dollars of castings are annually made, principally from the ore of Salisbury in Connecticut, which has a far extnded reputation. The refined bar-iron, produced from the pigs of this ore, is equal to any in America, and the Ancram works send great quantities of it to market. There are also other works, but I am not informed of their numbers. In 1810, the whole population was 2471, including 26 slaves, and there are also 307 electors. Charlotte pond, in the N. W., is a handsome collection of water, which discharges Dove creek, a small mill-stream W. into Ancram creek.
|N. T., G. G.|
State of New York;
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